Thursday, March 25, 2010

New Urbanization Notes

The New Urbanization

Why did the cities grow rapidly?
Freedom from water power
Massive immigration
Increased productivity of farms
Opening of markets
New technology
Megaloplis

Growing not just in population but in physical size
Metropolis
Proximity to jobs for workers
Streetcar: Influence?
Wages: Supply and Demand
Suburbs: An American Invention
Five causes in Amsco:
Cheap land
Rail
Balloon-frame house (compare to European stonework)
Ethnic/racial/Class prejudice
Privacy
Reason 6: Lack of a landed aristocracy: Rich are industrialists
Rich escape
Middle class escape (Manager class)
Long term:
1950s G.I. Bill/highway construction/Levittowns
Post 1954 (mostly 60s/70s) White flight
Crash of city services
Wealth: Home ownership
1980s/1990s Gated communities
1990s-present: New Urbanization?

Growing in new architecture:
Elevator
Bessamer process
Skyscrapers: Moderninsm
Henry Hobson Richardson
Romanesque Richardson surpassed by modernist Louis Sullivan
Frederick Law Olmsted: Transcendentalist appeal of nature: Regulated nature in the parks (regimented nature)
Tenements
Outline a flat: 6* 12 on floor
Construction: Why not use steel?
Immigrant housing
Potential problems?
Crowding
Fire
Septic
Heat
Unhealthiness
Reformers: Dumbell tenements
Read pp. 106 in the primary source book: Mary Antin Praises America

Immigration
New vs. Old Immigrants
What triggered shift in immigration?
Maturity of Western industry
Oppression/slow industrialization of East/South
Pogroms in Russia
Changing farmwork/productivity
Population boom
Chinese with Railroad labor contracts
Do Chinese count as “New immigrants?”
Impact on wages
Labor reaction

Immigrant experience
Prejudice/discrimination (NINA)
Corrupt machine politics
De facto segregation (vs. de jure)
Ethnic neighborhoods
Social associations: Provide social services
Insurance
Modern day evolution: Birthday clubs
Paternalism:
Settlement houses
Orphan trains
Do-gooderism?
Head-start analogy?
Assimilation?
Melting Pot theory
True at one point and not others?
Discomfort with those who won’t assimilate
Theory of visual Americanization: Persistance of racism against blacks/refusal to assimilate (Irish example: Asian counter-example)
Oscar Handlin: The uprooted
Isolated from children
Common complaint: Our children are Americans
John Bodnar: The Transplanted

Today?

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