The French and Indian War
The fourth, last and most decisive of the colonial wars. NOT the first.
Arithmatic v. exponential/geometric growth.
Math is cooooool! Preview for Bonus class
Americans on seaboard, blocked from expansion by transport difficulties created by the Appalachians.
French penetrating the continent via St. Lawrence and Mississippi (Ohio a tributary)
The French sought to pin the American colonies on the seaboard by making alliances with and arming Native Americans in the Appalachians.
Colonial government does not approve (to put it mildly).
Washington sent to Fort Duquesne – captures it, but then is captured.
Braddock sent to stamp out the French
Ignores Washington’s advice, gets ambushed and defeated. Class system in British officer corps.
Tactics of the Musket
“hard pounding this. Try who can pound the longest.”
Sergeant: Metronome for volley cycle and pistol – why?
Morale – How do you keep men standing up and cycling when gory chaos is all around them?
Men, men, men, men, manly men.
RIFLING (football example)
Physics is everywhere!
American aimed fire; terrain. Rifles owned at high expense (hunting/Indian defense w/o luxury of lines of allied soldiers). Shoot and scoot. GUERRILLA fighting.
Americans say: Brits are stupid. British say: Americans are unmanly.
Washington saves army but spurned by British establishment
Class system in British officer corps
Native Americans raid up and down the colonies from Pennsylvania to North Carolina
Albany Plan of Union: Tries to bring the colonial governments together to pay for defense.
Fails in purpose because they don’t want taxation.
British viewpoint: Americans keep banking on us to pay their way. They are cheapskates.
Value: Colonial leaders at the meeting form relationships that will prove important in the resistance to British taxation after the war. Preview of Committees of Correspondence.
Join or Die cartoon
General War has erupted in Europe
William Pitt the Elder
French penetration into the interior of the continent
One fist of Iron and one fist of Steel…
Let kids propose strategies.
STRATEGY (or, alternatively, strategery – growth of words (normalcy, etc) descriptive vs. proscriptive)
British, at great expense, ship armies to North America to attack French colonies
Fall of Quebec, 1759
Wolfe vs. Montcalm on the Plains of Abraham
Benjamin West painting (view and assess attitudes)
Treaty of Paris 1763 (Date important this time)
At Peace of 1763, France is forced to give up all territories in North America. Her ally, Spain, has to give up ____________.
1) British supreme in North America – no more French arming of Native Americans
Americans no longer “NEED” Britain
2) Britain in financial trouble. Cannot raise taxes any higher on people in the British Isles. Want to tax Americans to pay for America’s defense at the exact point when the colonists no longer feel a great need for defense. Many Americans pay no taxes whatsoever (Colonial land sales and British support of colonial government).
3) British believe Americans can’t fight (tactics of the musket)
4) Americans resentful of British snobbery (Washington)
5) Washington gains military experience, sees weaknesses of British tactics
6) Salutary Neglect ends
7) Pontiac’s rebellion -> Proclamation of 1763
8) Quebec issue.