Manifest - Obvious, easily seen. Think "manifestation" - a ghost that can be seen. Think "manifesto" - writing which shows ideas. Think "ship's manifest," a listing of everything onboard a ship so you that the cargo is easily seen.
Pendulum: A body suspended from a fixed support so that it swings freely back and forth under the influence of gravity, commonly used to regulate. Things that swing from side to side can be called pendulums.
Proximate: Nearby or close. The proximate cause of World War One was the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand.
Ultimate: Final or underlying. The ultimate causes of World War One were Germany's dissatisfaction with the status quo and a witches' brew of "isms."
Fulcrum: The place where a lever applies force. A place where everything changes.
Hegemony: Undisputed control.
Eurocentrism: A world view centered around European culture.
Prescriptive: Establishing rules or applying rules. Prescriptive historians inject value judgments into their interpretations.